|Infinitive||Simple Past||Past Participle|
|awake||awakened / awoke||awakened / awoken|
|backslide||backslid||backslidden / backslid|
|bear||bore||born / borne|
|beat||beat||beaten / beat|
|bet||bet / betted[?]||bet / betted [?]|
|bid (farewell)||bid / bade||bidden|
|bid (offer amount)||bid||bid|
|broadcast||broadcast / broadcasted||broadcast / broadcasted|
|browbeat||browbeat||browbeaten / browbeat|
|burn||burned / burnt [?]||burned / burnt [?]|
|bust||busted / bust||busted / bust|
|clothe||clothed / clad [?]||clothed / clad [?]|
|daydream||daydreamed / daydreamt [?]||daydreamed / daydreamt [?]|
|disprove||disproved||disproved / disproven|
|dive (jump head-first)||dove / dived||dived|
|dive (scuba diving)||dived / dove||dived|
|dream||dreamed / dreamt [?]||dreamed / dreamt [?]|
|dwell||dwelt / dwelled [?]||dwelt / dwelled [?]|
|fit (tailor, change size)||fitted / fit [?]||fitted / fit [?]|
|fit (be right size)||fit / fitted[?]||fit / fitted [?]|
|forego (also forgo)||forewent||foregone|
|forget||forgot||forgotten / forgot [?]|
|get||got||gotten / got [?]|
|hew||hewed||hewn / hewed|
|input||input / inputted||input / inputted|
|interweave||interwove / interweaved||interwoven / interweaved|
|kneel||knelt / kneeled||knelt / kneeled|
|knit||knitted / knit||knitted / knit|
|lean||leaned / leant [?]||leaned / leant [?]|
|leap||leaped / leapt [?]||leaped / leapt [?]|
|learn||learned / learnt [?]||learned / learnt [?]|
|lie (not tell truth) REGULAR||lied||lied|
|light||lit / lighted||lit / lighted|
|mislearn||mislearned / mislearnt [?]||mislearned / mislearnt [?]|
|misspell||misspelled / misspelt [?]||misspelled / misspelt [?]|
|mow||mowed||mowed / mown|
|No irregular verbs beginning with “N.”|
|outleap||outleaped / outleapt [?]||outleaped / outleapt [?]|
|outlie (not tell truth) REGULAR||outlied||outlied|
|outshine||outshined / outshone [?]||outshined / outshone [?]|
|outsmell||outsmelled / outsmelt [?]||outsmelled / outsmelt [?]|
|oversew||oversewed||oversewn / oversewed|
|overspill||overspilled / overspilt [?]||overspilled / overspilt [?]|
|plead||pleaded / pled||pleaded / pled|
|prove||proved||proven / proved|
|quit||quit / quitted [?]||quit / quitted [?]|
|read||read (sounds like “red”)||read (sounds like “red”)|
|rebroadcast||rebroadcast / rebroadcasted||rebroadcast / rebroadcasted|
|refit (replace parts)||refit / refitted [?]||refit / refitted [?]|
|refit (retailor)||refitted / refit [?]||refitted / refit [?]|
|reknit||reknitted / reknit||reknitted / reknit|
|relay (for example tiles)||relaid||relaid|
|relay (pass along) REGULAR||relayed||relayed|
|relearn||relearned / relearnt [?]||relearned / relearnt [?]|
|relight||relit / relighted||relit / relighted|
|resew||resewed||resewn / resewed|
|retrofit||retrofitted / retrofit [?]||retrofitted / retrofit [?]|
|rewake||rewoke / rewaked||rewaken / rewaked|
|reweave||rewove / reweaved||rewoven / reweaved|
|rewed||rewed / rewedded||rewed / rewedded|
|rewet||rewet / rewetted [?]||rewet / rewetted [?]|
|saw||sawed||sawed / sawn|
|sew||sewed||sewn / sewed|
|shave||shaved||shaved / shaven|
|shear||sheared||sheared / shorn|
|shine||shined / shone [?]||shined / shone [?]|
|shit||shit / shat / shitted||shit/ shat / shitted|
|show||showed||shown / showed|
|shrink||shrank / shrunk||shrunk|
|sink||sank / sunk||sunk|
|slay (kill)||slew / slayed||slain / slayed|
|slay (amuse) REGULAR||slayed||slayed|
|slink||slinked / slunk||slinked / slunk|
|smell||smelled / smelt [?]||smelled / smelt [?]|
|sneak||sneaked / snuck||sneaked / snuck|
|sow||sowed||sown / sowed|
|speed||sped / speeded||sped / speeded|
|spell||spelled / spelt [?]||spelled / spelt [?]|
|spill||spilled / spilt [?]||spilled / spilt [?]|
|spit||spit / spat||spit / spat|
|spoil||spoiled / spoilt [?]||spoiled / spoilt [?]|
|spring||sprang / sprung||sprung|
|stink||stunk / stank||stunk|
|strew||strewed||strewn / strewed|
|strike (hit)||struck||struck / stricken|
|strive||strove / strived||striven / strived|
|sunburn||sunburned / sunburnt [?]||sunburned / sunburnt [?]|
|sweat||sweat / sweated||sweat / sweated|
|swell||swelled||swollen / swelled|
|tread||trod||trodden / trod|
|unclothe||unclothed / unclad [?]||unclothed / unclad [?]|
|unknit||unknitted / unknit||unknitted / unknit|
|unlearn||unlearned / unlearnt [?]||unlearned / unlearnt [?]|
|unsew||unsewed||unsewn / unsewed|
|unweave||unwove / unweaved||unwoven / unweaved|
|No commonly used irregular verbs beginning with “V.”
To view our extended dictionary including rare and antiquated forms, Click Here.
|wake||woke / waked||woken / waked|
|weave||wove / weaved||woven / weaved|
|wed||wed / wedded||wed / wedded|
|wet||wet / wetted [?]||wet / wetted [?]|
|No irregular verbs beginning with “X.”|
|No irregular verbs beginning with “Y.”|
|No irregular verbs beginning with “Z.”|
[VERB+ed] orirregular verbs
- You called Debbie.
- Did you call Debbie?
- You did not call Debbie.
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
- I saw a movie yesterday.
- I didn’t see a play yesterday.
- Last year, I traveled to Japan.
- Last year, I didn’t travel to Korea.
- Did you have dinner last night?
- She washed her car.
- He didn’t wash his car.
USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions
We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
- I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
- He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
- Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?
USE 3 Duration in Past
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
- I lived in Brazil for two years.
- Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
- They sat at the beach all day.
- They did not stay at the party the entire time.
- We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
- A: How long did you wait for them?
B: We waited for one hour.
USE 4 Habits in the Past
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as “used to.” To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
- I studied French when I was a child.
- He played the violin.
- He didn’t play the piano.
- Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
- She worked at the movie theater after school.
- They never went to school, they always skipped class.
USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression “used to.”
- She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
- He didn’t like tomatoes before.
- Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
- People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.
IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word “when” such as “when I dropped my pen…” or “when class began…” These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
- When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
- She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether “when I paid her one dollar” is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.
- I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
- You just called Debbie.
- Did you just call Debbie?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
- Tom repaired the car. Active
- The car was repaired by Tom. Passive
Active / Passive Verb Forms
In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.
[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]
In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.
[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]
Active / Passive Overview
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
|Present Perfect Continuous||
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.
|Past Perfect Continuous||
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
be going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
|Future Perfect Continuous
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
|Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
|Future in the Past
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
|Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.