Maddie Ancuta
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Engleza

Simple Past

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Simple Past

FORM

[VERB+ed] orirregular verbs

Examples:

  • You called Debbie.
  • Did you call Debbie?
  • You did not call Debbie.

 

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

Examples:

  • I saw a movie yesterday.
  • I didn’t see a play yesterday.
  • Last year, I traveled to Japan.
  • Last year, I didn’t travel to Korea.
  • Did you have dinner last night?
  • She washed her car.
  • He didn’t wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

Examples:

  • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
  • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
  • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

Examples:

  • I lived in Brazil for two years.
  • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
  • They sat at the beach all day.
  • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
  • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
  • A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as “used to.” To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

Examples:

  • I studied French when I was a child.
  • He played the violin.
  • He didn’t play the piano.
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
  • She worked at the movie theater after school.
  • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression “used to.”

Examples:

  • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
  • He didn’t like tomatoes before.
  • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
  • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word “when” such as “when I dropped my pen…” or “when class began…” These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.

Examples:

  • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
  • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.

When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether “when I paid her one dollar” is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.

Example:

  • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • You just called Debbie.
  • Did you just call Debbie?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • Tom repaired the car. Active
  • The car was repaired by Tom. Passive

 

Engleza

Active / Passive Verb Forms

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Active / Passive Verb Forms

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have “active forms” and “passive forms.” You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

Active / Passive Overview

Active Passive
Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now,   Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now,   the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future
will
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future
be going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous
will
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfect
will
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous
will
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the Past
Would
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

 

Engleza

Types of Verbs

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Types of Verbs

Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups: Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed Verbs.

Group I Normal Verbs

Most verbs are “Normal Verbs.” These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.

Normal Verbs

to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc.

Examples:

  • I eat dinner every day.
  • I am eating dinner now.

Group II Non-Continuous Verbs

The second group, called “Non-Continuous Verbs,” is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in continuous tenses. They include:

Abstract Verbs

to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist…

Possession Verbs

to possess, to own, to belong…

Emotion Verbs

to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind…

Examples:

  • He is needing help now. Not Correct
  • He needs help now. Correct
  • He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct
  • He wants a drink now. Correct

Group III Mixed Verbs

The third group, called “Mixed Verbs,” is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb. Some meanings behave like “Non-Continuous Verbs,” while other meanings behave like “Normal Verbs.”

Mixed Verbs

to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh…

List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions:

to appear:

  • Donna appears confused. Non-Continuous Verb
    Donna seems confused.
  • My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. Normal Verb
    My favorite singer is giving a performance at the jazz club tonight.

to have:

  • I have a dollar now. Non-Continuous Verb
    I possess a dollar.
  • I am having fun now. Normal Verb
    I am experiencing fun now.

to hear:

  • She hears the music. Non-Continuous Verb
    She hears the music with her ears.
  • She is hearing voices. Normal Verb
    She  hears something others cannot hear. She is hearing voices in her mind.

to look:

  • Nancy looks tired. Non-Continuous Verb
    She seems tired.
  • Farah is looking at the pictures. Normal Verb
    She is  looking with her eyes.

to miss:

  • John misses Sally. Non-Continuous Verb
    He is sad because she is not there.
  • Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. Normal Verb
    She is not there to see her favorite program.

to see:

  • I see her. Non-Continuous Verb
    I see her with my eyes.
  • I am seeing the doctor. Normal Verb
    I am  visiting or consulting with a doctor. (Also used with dentist and lawyer.)
  • I am seeing her. Normal Verb
    I am having a relationship with her.
  • He is seeing ghosts at night. Normal Verb
    He sees something others cannot see. For example ghosts, aura, a vision of the future, etc.

to smell:

  • The coffee smells good. Non-Continuous Verb
    The coffee has a good smell.
  • I am smelling the flowers. Normal Verb
    I am sniffing the flowers to see what their smell is like.

to taste:

  • The coffee tastes good. Non-Continuous Verb
    The coffee has a good taste.
  • I am tasting the cake. Normal Verb
    I am trying the cake to see what it tastes like.

to think:

  • He thinks the test is easy. Non-Continuous Verb
    He considers the test to be easy.
  • She is thinking about the question. Normal Verb
    She is pondering the question, going over it in her mind.

to weigh:

  • The table weighs a lot. Non-Continuous Verb
    The table is heavy.
  • She is weighing herself. Normal Verb
    She is determining her weight.

Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing:

to be:

  • Joe is American. Non-Continuous Verb
    Joe is an American citizen.
  • Joe is being very American. Normal Verb
    Joe is behaving like a stereotypical American.
  • Joe is being very rude. Normal Verb
    Joe is behaving very rudely. Usually he is not rude.
  • Joe is being very formal. Normal Verb
    Joe is behaving very formally. Usually he is not formal.

NOTICE: Only rarely is “to be” used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone’s behavior is noticeably different.

to feel:

  • The massage feels great. Non-Continuous Verb
    The massage has a pleasing feeling.
  • I don’t feel well today. Sometimes used as Non-Continuous Verb
    I am a little sick.
    I am not feeling well today. Sometimes used as Normal Verb
    I am a little sick.

NOTICE: The second meaning of “feel” is very flexible and there is no real difference in meaning between “I don’t feel well today” and “I am not feeling well today.”